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General Information

• Please register early to avoid disappointment. You may register online at www.ssac.org, call 781.383.2787 to register by phone with a credit card or see registration page for mail-in information. A $25 non-refundable registration fee is included in tuition. If a student cancels a registration at least ten days before a course or workshop begins, a refund will be granted. Visiting Artist Workshops require a 30 day cancellation notification.

• Students must provide their own materials for Adult Courses and Workshops unless noted.

• Young adults, 15 years and older, are welcome to enroll in most adult courses with the permission of the instructor.


Supply Lists:
Click here for Supply Lists


Click here for courses in Hingham

Learning Lab

Tuesday or Friday from 3:30–5:30 or Saturday 10–12

 

Develop your artistic skills, talent, and creativity! Our highly skilled artist-teachers will train you in techniques and use of tools and materials,to help unlock your own unique style. Customized instruction for beginners to advanced levels.

 

1. Buy a block of 5 sessions. This is a rolling admission program of two-hour sessions. Reservations required. Blocks of 5 sessions for $350M and $400NM must be used by the end of the term in which you sign up.

 

2. Reserve your 5 choices. (Offered below.) 4 students maximum per session. Individual mentoring sessions are available at $50 per hour.

 

3. Have fun!

 

Call to schedule sessions—781 383 2787

801 Observational Collage—Take your still life to a new level. Learn basics of drawing forms in space before changing it up with collage. Learn how shape, patterns, and relationships of objects help you create a new visual dimension.
802 It’s all in Perspective—Lead your viewer into your landscape scenes using aerial, one-and two-point perspective. Start with simple shapes before you take your skills on a journey around your paper.
803 Self Portrait—Embrace your ever-changing expressions with charcoal, wire, and monoprints.
804 Life Drawing—Working from a clothed model—gesture drawings to 30 minute poses, discover new ways to express the ever-changing form of the figure.
805 Pastel Landscape—Amp up the color of the landscape using soft pastels. Learn many techniques while creating beautiful landscape paintings.
806 Printmaking—Express your inner animal through printmaking. We will create multi-colored prints based on the animal in you.
807 Photoshop (Mac Only)—Beginner, Photoshop CS4
808 Photoshop (Mac Only)—Intermediate, Photoshop CS4
809 Photo Elements (Mac Only) Adobe version 11 or 12
810 PowerPoint for Mac 2008 (docx) or 97–2004 (ppt)
811 Art Explorations for Teens
812 Portfolio Works in Progress
813 All About Industrial Design
814 Artist Choice—Students will request their own medium and direction.

Studio Art Foundation Program


South Shore Art Center offers a new program for students looking to formalize their art studies. Upon completion of a specially designed curriculum, SSAC will award students a Certificate in Studio Art Foundation. Participants in the program will have ongoing support of Art Center faculty to evaluate work and assist in course selection. Certificate Students will have priority registration and be assisted in creating a portfolio of work from their selected courses for presentation and exhibition. They also will have the opportunity to exhibit at SSAC in Certificate Student shows. Courses must be completed within three years of registration. (One course, taken prior to January 2012 is eligible for inclusion in the Certificate Program.)

Registration fee for this program is $50.
Contact 781-383-2787 for more information.



First Year Focus
Basic Drawing (48 hours minimum)
Color Theory (10 hours minimum)
Intro to Painting (24 hours minimum Oil, Acrylic, or Watercolor)
Elective choice (24 hours)


Second Year Focus
Drawing II (24 hours minimum)
Art History (12 hours)
Painting Elective (24 hours minimum)
Elective choice (24 hours)


Elective Courses
Advanced Drawing (24 hours)
Printmaking (24 hours)
Photography (16 hours)
3D ceramics (24 hours)
Visiting Art Workshops (18 hours minimum)


Studio Art
Foundation Program

300a & b Basic Drawing

Judy Rossman

The ability to draw is not inherited, it is a learned skill. That ability is directly related to one’s observational skills. Being able to see the basic structure of all objects is the first step (similar to reading music). Through a series of exercises, assignments, and homework, students will strengthen their observational and drawing skills. Composition, value studies, line, texture and color will broaden their understanding of the drawing process. This class can accommodate both beginner and intermediate levels in a supportive environment with lots of one-on-one instruction. Continuing students welcome.


300a INTRMEDIATE/ADVANCED—FRIDAY SECTION
No class Feb 24.
1/13–3/10 Friday am 10:30–1:30
$240M $285NM 8 classes

1/13–3/10, Fri 300a
Members FILLED
Non Members FILLED

300b BEGINNER/INTERMEDIATE—TUESDAY SECTION
No class Feb 21.
1/10-3/7 Tues pm 1:00–4:00
$240M $285NM 8 classes

1/10-3/7, TUE 300b
Members
Non Members

301 Exploring the Figure

Laurinda O’Connor

Drawing from a live model creates challenges and provides inspiration to help develop skills in new and exciting ways. Let’s push beyond traditional figure drawing. We will turn a quick gestural drawing into a finished artwork in a medium of your choice. Each class will have one pose to allow for time to explore the push and pull of positive and negative space, light and dark values, line, shape and form. We will work from both clothed and nude models and will have individual instruction at the easel and opportunities to complete finished pieces. Previous figure drawing experience is required.


1/12–2/2 Thurs pm 6:30–8:30
$175M $220NM 4 weeks
includes model fee

301
Members
Non Members

302 Pastel Atelier

Donna Rossetti-Bailey

This course is for intermediate and advanced pastel artists with drawing experience. Each class will involve five hours of uninterrupted studio and plein- air painting time and include instruction, one-on-one easel time, critiques, and lots of information exchanges. All students will be encouraged to express their own personal style and imagery. We will have fun, laugh and learn from one another in this extended class. Some materials provided. Bring your lunch. No class Feb 15 or 22.


1/11–3/29 Wed 9:00–2:00
$350M $395NM 10 classes

302
Members
Non Members

303 Expressive Pastels

Laurinda O'Connor

Let’s break away from tradition and have fun painting landscapes! In this session, students will go beyond their photo reference and develop their own style while expressing themselves through their stroke, color choices, and value decisions. Laurinda will demonstrate, suggest exercises and themes, and offer plenty of individual instruction. Students are encouraged to bring their own photographic references. No class Feb 21.


1/10–3/7 Tues am 9:30–12:30
$240M $285NM 8 classes

303
Members
Non Members

305 Winter Vegetables

Sarah Roche

It might be cold and wintry outside, but in this class you can explore the vibrant color and challenging forms of the winter vegetables. Through observational drawing and accurate color mixing, develop detailed botanical watercolors of winter’s harvest. All experience levels are welcome as the class will include plenty of demonstration and instruction by the instructor, an award-winning artist and experienced teacher and Education Director of the Wellesley College FOBG Botanical Art and Illustration Program.


2/6, 2/13, 2/27, 3/6 Mon am 9:30–12:30
$195M $240NM 4 classes

305
Members
Non Members

 


310 Beginner/Intermediate Watercolor

Mary Callahan

Designed for all levels of the watercolorist, this course will first provide the fundamentals and then explore the many techniques of watercolor. Art works may be based on still life set-ups, photos, or from your imagination. Emphasis will be on color and design, with the goal of creating an organized emotional statement. No class Feb 23.


1/12–3/23 Thurs am 9:00–12:00
$285M $330NM 10 classes

310
Members
Non Members

320 Introduction to Oil Painting

Dianne Panarelli Miller

This is a fun class designed to get you painting right away. Class will begin with an informative demonstration to help students see how to begin a painting. After the demo, Dianne will work with you on an individual basis to help you improve at your own speed. There will be many interesting still life set ups so there will be no crowding. Instruction will be a blend of the discipline of Academic Traditional Methods with the freedom of “Alla Prima” to help students learn the fundamentals to create a painting that is structurally sound in color, composition and technique. Whether you are a beginner or advanced artist you will benefit from this class. No class Feb 21.


1/31–3/28 Tues am 9:30–12:30
$240M $285NM 8 classes

320
Members
Non Members

323 Acrylic Painting: Basics and More

Lisa Marder


Learn to develop your painting skills with this versatile medium. Through a variety of projects using photographs, master works, and still life, you will learn various acrylic techniques as well as how to create strong compositions. You will receive individual instruction as well as group critique in a supportive creative environment. No class Feb 23.


1/12–3/9 Thurs am 9:30–12:30
$240M $285NM 8 classes

323
Members
Non Members

324 Contemporary Techniques in Painting

Valerie Forte Vitali

Bring your current interests, knowledge and ability to paint in oils and we will explore additional techniques to increase your methods and approach to this versatile medium. We will paint traditionally and we will experiment with materials such as oil paint, oil sticks, stencils, and techniques such as glazing, washes, layering and ways to manipulate these. The objective is to introduce techniques which will make your painting vital and your practice engaging and lively! Continuing students may wish to challenge themselves by broadening their technical practice while also exploring new content. No class Feb 21.


1/17–3/14 Tues pm 1:00–4:00
$240M $285NM 8 classes

  342
Members
Non Members

325a Painting the Figure

Renee Caouette


This studio course is for intermediate students who are looking to advance to another level. The primary emphasis will be on practicing methods for painting and rendering the figure based on proportional accuracy, foreshortening, and cast shadows to achieve a convincing three-dimensional form based on the study of life models. Instruction will focus on color theory, gesture, contour, outline, negative space, and tonal values. Students will explore different classical and contemporary techniques that will produce an effective rendering of the figure. The ultimate goal is for students to have a better understanding of human anatomy, rendering the figure with accurate observation, and developing confidence in drawing and painting the figure.


1/10–2/7 Tues pm 6:00–9:00
$225M $265NM 5 classes
includes model fee

325a
Members
Non Members

325b Composing the Figure and Interior Spaces

Renee Caouette

This class is an extension of class 325a. In this second half of the initial course, the focus will be on composing sophisticated narratives and visually interesting interior scenes. Students will be exposed to an in-depth study of the principles of composition, value, pattern, tone, staging, mood, and color theories. By examining artworks from a variety of periods and styles, represented by such diverse artists as Bonnard, Vuillard, Courbet, Caravaggio, and Hammershoi, students may explore different methods in composing interior scenes. The ultimate goal is for students to develop their own style while exploring their individual creative process. No class Feb 21.


2/14–3/21 Tues pm 6:00–9:00
$225M $265NM 5 classes
includes model fee

325b
Members
Non Members

327 "Alla Prima" Still Life

Dianne Panarelli Miller

This class will begin with an informative demonstration to help students see how to begin a painting. The instructor will work with students on an individual basis to help them improve at their own speed. Students will work outside—weather permitting—or work from still life set ups. The instructor will blend the discipline of Academic Traditional Methods with the freedom of “Alla Prima” (all in one sitting) to help students learn the fundamentals to create a painting that is structurally sound in color, composition and technique. Whether you are a beginner or advanced artist you will benefit from this class. No class Feb 20.


1/30–3/27 Monday am 9:30–12:30
$240M $285NM 8 classes

327
Members
Non Members

500 LIfe Drawing and Painting Studio

Uninstructed—Michael McNabb, Coordinator

Develop your skills in drawing from the model in this ongoing class. Please call the Coordinator 781-545-4991 if you plan to attend.


Ongoing Mon pm 7:00–10:00
$10 per session model fee payable at class

341 Intermediate/Advanced Monoprinting

Esther Maschio

Monoprinting can be a highly experimental medium for creating strikingly unique works of art. An indirect process, typically, imagery is created on a Plexiglas plate and then transferred by means of an etching press to archival paper. Brayers and brushes are the primary tools used. Methods and techniques include: additive, subtractive, mixing inks, roll-ups, viscosity, transparencies, color layering, multiple plate printing, plate registration, color theory simplified, trace drawing, collage, chine colle and more. Students will work with instructor to define goals and then set a plan to begin work. In this dynamic and energetic studio environment, exploration and growth are emphasized at the individual and group level. For those students with prior experience in solar platemaking and printing, as well as other platemaking techniques, they may continue in those directions. No class Jan 16, Feb 20.


1/9–3/27 Mon am 9:00–2:00
$350M $395NM 10 classes
(includes $15 materials fee for inks)

341
Members
Non Members




350 Introduction to Ceramics

Ann Conte

For the beginning clay student, this course will introduce students to the techniques of coil, pinch, slab, wheel and combinations of these techniques. Functional and non-functional pieces will be created, glazed and fired. Texture, form and surface treatment will be covered as part of the one-on-one instruction, reinforced by demonstrations of technique and process. No class Feb 24.


1/13–3/24 Fri am 9:30–12:30
$365M $410NM 10 classes
includes materials and firing fee

350
Members Call to Register
Non Members Call to Register

351 Clay Work

Liz Rodriguez

This course includes instruction in wheel throwing and hand building techniques. We will start where you are: beginners will learn how to center clay, make small bowls and cups: advanced students will explore more complicated forms including lidded jars and teapots. Handbuilders will learn pinch, coil, slab techniques and will produce a variety of containers and objects. The class will also investigate different surface/decorating techniques such as slips, sgraffito, paper resist, carving, stamping and glazes. Come ready to try new ideas.
No class Feb 21.


1/10–3/21 Tues pm 6:00–9:00
$365M $410NM 10 classes

351
Members call to register
Non Members call to register

352 Potter's Wheel & More

Jeanne Wiley

This ceramic class will cover wheel techniques as well as slab, coil and hand building. Glaze applications will be demonstrated and independent projects are welcomed in this very supportive class. Open to all students. No class Feb 22.

 

1/11–3/22 Wed pm 6:00–9:00
$365M $410NM 10 classes

352
Members
Non Members

354 Clay Decorating Techniques

Ann Conte

Learn new ways to finish your clay pieces with image transfer, mono printing, photo lithography, sgraffito, and more. This class will allow you to expand your glazing repertoire. The first classes will focus on learning new techniques. Students will then be able to put their new knowledge into practice through their clay hand built and wheel thrown work. Prior clay experience is required to take this course. No class February 23.


1/12–3/23 Thurs pm 6:00–9:00
$365M $410NM 10 classes

354
Members
Non Members

355 Modern Forms and Vessels

Allison Crowe


This is an intermediate ceramic sculpture course focused on experimentation with modern forms in hand building and wheel work. Emphasis will be on novel use of scale, surface design and fabrication techniques. We will study the sculptural forms and surfaces of: Alison Britton, Hans Coper, Peter Voulkos and Picasso. Through assignments that give liberal opportunity for individual interpretation, students will grow their skills and abilities to work with modern and abstract forms in clay.
No class Feb 23.


1/12–3/23 Thurs am 10:00–2:00
$385M $430NM 10 classes

355
Members
Non Members

362 Mastering Collage

Monice Morenz

Looking for a creative jump-start for this winter season? In this course, you will learn how to paint and assemble papers in a unique approach to art—the process of collage. Collage is the technique of gluing objects or materials not commonly associated with one another to a backing or workable surface. Exemplary examples of the medium from cubism to surrealism to more contemporary applications will be used to examine a specific concept each week. Students will be encouraged to create images based on themes rooted in design, color, abstraction, and building a personal narrative. There will be weekly class demonstrations and critiques. No class Feb 22.


1/11–3/22 Wed pm 1:00–4:00
$285M $330NM 10 classes

362
Members
Non Members

364 Collage Works

Karen Cass


This course is designed for students of all ability levels who wish to explore the endless possibilities of collage media. Students will learn how to prepare a variety of surfaces for collage application and will create unique papers with various printmaking techniques along with the integration of acrylic paint and drawing media. Experimentation and play are essential to the collage-making process. We will do plenty of both as we strive to create satisfying, richly layered compositions. Additional other materials such as fabrics, textural materials fibers and wood will also be introduced. Students are encouraged to bring their own collection of inspiring materials. We will discuss materials as the course progresses. Exemplary works of Picasso, Schwitters, Motherwell and Cornell will be discussed. No class Feb 22.


1/11–3/22 Wed pm 6:00–9:00
$285M $330NM 10 classes

364
Members
Non Members

 

 

375 The Altered Book

Stephen Sheffield


Don’t write in that book! Don’t tear the pages! Don’t turn down the corner! Have you ever heard a teacher or librarian say those things? In this class we are throwing all that out the window and “breaking the rules”. We are turning books into art! We will alter used hard-cover books. Your book and its pages will be your canvas as you draw, paint, rip, burn, fold, stamp, and whatever else you can think of. If you like any type of art—collage, scrapbooking, stamping, or mixed media—then you will love making an altered book. The possibilities are absolutely endless for what your altered book can become. By using various coloring mediums, embellishments, and techniques, you can turn your book into a planner, an art journal, a shadowbox, or even a scrapbook. Throughout the course, students will be exposed to original examples of artists’ books as well as works by modern masters. Instruction will be based on a weekly progression of the various techniques, procedures and applications required in creating an original altered book. No class Jan 16, Feb 20.


1/9–3/13 Mon pm 6:30–9:00
$250M $295NM 8 classes

375
Members
Non Members

371 Basic Digital Photography—Start to Finish

Tim Waite

Learn how to maximize the digital camera. Students will learn the fundamentals of exposure by taking advantage of the features and functionality specific to their own digital camera. This course will focus on the technical aspects of digital photography, including image file formats, lens selection, the light metering, and developing your own digital workflow. You will build on your abilities week-to-week through various assignments created to reinforce the topics you’ve learned. Students should bring their cameras and manuals to class. Digital SLR cameras required.


1/12–2/16 Thurs pm 7:00–9:00
$195M $240NM 6 classes

371
Members
Non Members

385 The Enigma That Was Picasso: A Study In Change And Continuity

Anthony Pilla


This lecture series will deal with various stages in the creative life of Pablo Picasso from the ground breaking painting, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon to the provocative works done in the ten year period prior to his death in 1973. Selected topics will include his illustrations for Ovid’s Metamorphoses, his creative and competitive relationship with Matisse, his adaptations and painterly commentaries on the works of past masters such as Velasquez, Poussin, Delacroix, and Degas, and his influence on the artwork of American modern masters, Arshile Gorky and Jackson Pollock. No class Feb 23.


1/19–3/2 Thurs pm 1:30–3:00
$195M $240NM 6 classes

385
Members
Non Members

WORKSHOPS

 

402 Pastel Studio Weekend Workshops

Anne Heywood


Creativity is out of the box in this interesting theme-based pastel workshop! Saturdays are dedicated to still life paintings (January: comfort foods; February: junk foods, and March: your favorite recipe), and Sundays are dedicated to landscape paintings (January: your favorite place; February: your favorite vacation spot; March: your “pretend” place). Each day starts with a live pastel painting demonstration and instruction, then enjoy the rest of the day painting. “Instructor’s hands-off” guidance at your easel. Special “perk”: you can set up your painting materials on Saturday morning, and pack them up at the end of Sunday’s workshop. For any level student. See suggested materials list for further information.


1/14–1/15, 2/11–2/12, 3/11–3/12
Sat–Sun 9:30–4:00 6 classes
$200M $245NM

402
Members
Non Members

405 Drawing Overhaul

Paul Endres, Jr.


This is a beginner/Intermediate drawing for those looking to mix up their drawing practice. In this one-day workshop we will discuss some contemporary artists and discuss strategies for maintaining a healthy studio practice at home. The day will consist primarily of observational drawing that are meant to be challenging and fun. Previous artistic experience would be helpful but is not a requirement.


3/19 Sun 10–4 1 class
$110M $155NM

405
Members
Non Members

432 Painting Shmainting

iPaul Endres, Jr.


This is an intermediate painting class for those looking to mix up their painting practice. In this one-day workshop we will discuss some contemporary painters and discuss strategies for maintaining a healthy studio practice at home. The day will consist primarily of observational painting and color mixing exercises that are meant to be challenging and fun. In the workshop we will use acrylic paint though the techniques and prompts will be helpful for painters in any medium. Previous painting experience would be helpful.


3/5 Sun 10–4
$110 $155NM 1 class

432
Members
Non Members

440 Beginer/Intermediate/Advanced Monoprinting

Esther Maschio


Learn something new to stretch your imagination. Monoprinting is the most accessible and experimental of any of the visual arts. Technique and process are taught by means of sequential demonstrations starting with basic lessons. An indirect process, imagery is applied to a Plexiglas surface then transferred to archival paper by means of an etching press. Students will learn about mixing inks, roll-ups, viscosity, color theory simplified, additive, subtractive, trace drawing, transfers, blind embossing and chine colle among others. Solar platemaking and printing will be included for those who have experience with this technique. Individual attention is given during each class and group experience and interaction with other students all combine to create a stimulating atmosphere with lots of room for meaningful and fascinating learning curves. Students at all levels of experience are welcome.


2/18, 2/19 Sat–Sun 9:30–3:30
$155M $185NM 2 classes

421
Members
Non Members

460 Large Scale Image Transfer on Wood & Canvas

Allison Crowe

Working with images of your choice you will transfer them to plywood panels or canvases as large as you like. Beginning with a photo, you will learn how to enlarge it very simply on a computer with free software you can download at home. No experience or computers required in class, instructor will demonstrate on her device, enlarging students’ photos for them. We will print large-scale in color by ‘tiling’ the image in 8”x11” sheets. The image is then adhered to a corresponding scale piece of plywood or canvas. Twenty-four hours later, the paper is washed off, revealing the image—now imbedded into the plywood or canvas. The results will be distressed—with some degree of control over how much, the overall effect is painterly and can still be further worked into with acrylics and mixed media. Laptops are optional, if you do bring one, you will learn how to do the digital process on your machine. There will be a materials list provided.


1/27–1/29 Fri–Sun 10:00–3:00
$185M $230NM 3 classes

460
Members
Non Members

468 Improvising With Curves And Strips

Virginia Holloway


We will improvise an abstract design (a runner or hanging) while learning techniques for cutting and sewing curved seams and strips of cotton fabric. Composition, color and design with fabric will be the focus along with basic techniques for working with fabric.
Basic use of sewing machines is required.


1/14–1/15 Sat–Sun 10:00–4:00
$155M $200NM 2 classes

468
Members
Non Members

488 Color Theory Simplified

Judy Rossman

Through a series of structured sequential exercises, students will understand the basics of color mixing. This understanding will endow the student with skill and confidence in any color media he/she approaches including watercolor, oils, acrylics, oil pastels, colored pencil and gouache. A simple still life will be completed utilizing techniques experienced in previous exercises.


2/5 and 2/12 Sunday 11:00–4:00
$120M $165NM 2 classes.

488
Members
Non Members

VISITING ARTIST WORKSHOPS—WINTER 2017

 

 

521 Fibrant Sketches/Energized Paintings

Emily Passman


Very often we love our preliminary sketches and color studies more than the final painting! In this workshop let’s look at “Why?” Is it the fresh quality of the line? Or is it an intuitive subjective response as opposed to an objective “rendering” of the scene? Through a series of exercises we will attempt to stay fresh, stay strong, and keep a painterly and sketch-like feel to the work. We will also decide color choices with more immediacy, pushing values and finding new and surprising colors inside a shadow. We will use a few “right-brained” and “timed drawing” exercises on paper that will feed into the work on canvas, and assist in maintaining that beloved sketch sense as we move through the painting. We will draw with bold lines onto paper, and then move into either oil or acrylic and continue to draw onto our canvas. Come prepared to free yourself from rendering, and finish with pieces that feel fresh and alive.


2/4–2/5 Sat and Sun 10:00–4:00
$195M $240NM 2 classes

521
Members
Non Members

541 Monoprint Encaustics

Joyce Zavorskas


Using textured plates, students will print a series of related monoprints, and attach selected works to wood panels, then seal with melted beeswax mixed with damar varnish (encaustic medium). Organic matter or found flat objects may be embedded in additional layers of beeswax, creating subtle and intriguing layered works uniquely preserved. Previously printed monoprints or monotypes may also be used, as well as portions of digital images.


1/20– 1/22 Fri–Sun 9:30–3:30
$250M $295NM 3 classes

541
Members
Non Members

SPRING 2017

 

565 Expanding Your Vision With Oil & Cold Wax

Lisa Pressman


The focus of this workshop will be on expanding your personal vocabulary and vision through a series of exercises that will loosen you up and also help you discover techniques of moving paint. We will be exploring cold wax and other media to create expressive, richly surfaced paintings. Materials such as: R&F pigment sticks; graphite, ink, pastels and oil paint will be introduced. Demonstrations will include: layering, excavating, monoprinting,glazing along with, texture, mark making and editing. Students will be encouraged to work in a series, while revisiting the painting process. Activities will include exercises, informal group discussion, individual support, power points and more. We will focus on: content, how to see, and moving the work forward. Some art background would be helpful. Workshop is for beginners to professionals. A supply list will be provided online.


5/19–5/21 Fri–Sun 9:30–4:00
$455M $495NM 3 classes

565
Members
Non Members



PDP's

Attention Teachers! South Shore Art Center is approved by the Massachusetts Department of Education as a provider of Professional Development Points. We are pleased to provide a certificate of completion for any of our adult courses or workshops.